Bruxism refers the grinding of the teeth and the clenching of the jaw, which can occur either during the day or at night.
Bruxism is frequently misdiagnosed or not diagnosed at all, because it is only one of several potential causes of tooth wear. Only a trained professional can tell the difference between bruxing wear and wear caused by overly aggressive brushing, acidic soft drinks and abrasive foods.
Reasons for the treatment of bruxism
Here are some of the main reasons why bruxism should be promptly treated:
Gum recession and tooth loss – Bruxism can potentially contribute to gum recession and tooth loss; firstly because it damages the soft tissue directly, and secondly because it contributes to loose teeth and potentially deep pockets where bacteria can colonize and destroy the supporting bone.
Occlusal trauma – The abnormal wear patterns on the occlusal (chewing) surfaces can lead to damage of surrounding bone and fractures in the teeth.
Arthritis – In severe and chronic cases, bruxing can eventually lead to painful arthritis in the temporomandibular (TMJ) joints (the joints that allow the jaw to open smoothly).
Myofascial pain – The grinding associated with bruxism can eventually shorten and blunt the teeth. This can lead to muscle pain in the myofascial region and debilitating headaches.
Treatment options for bruxism
There is no single cure for bruxism, though a variety of helpful devices and tools are available. Here are some common ways in which bruxism is treated:
Mouthguards – An acrylic mouthguard can be designed and fitted by a health professional. From digital impressions to minimize the abrasive action of tooth surfaces during normal sleep. Mouthguards should be worn on a long-term basis to help prevent tooth damage, damage to the temporomandibular joint and help to stabilize the occlusion.
Botox® – Botox® can be injected into the muscles to relax and weaken them. Botox® is an excellent treatment for bruxism because it weakens the muscles enough to prevent the grinding, but not enough to interfere with everyday functions like chewing and speaking.
- Photobiomodulation – Light therapy that can lead to minimizing inflammation of the muscles and joints thus reducing pain / discomfort.
Other methods of treatment include relaxation exercises, stress management education and biofeedback mechanisms. When the bruxing is under control, there are a variety of dental procedures such as crowns, gum grafts and crown lengthening that can restore a pleasant aesthetic appearance to the smile.
If you have questions or concerns about bruxism, please ask your periodontist.